Clyde Winters  (2018)
Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences ISSN:  2231 – 6345 (Online) Vol. 8 (1) January-March, pp. 1-33

Kushites lived in Africa and Eurasia but originated in Africa. Many of the Caucasus hunter-gathers and early European farmer populations carried R1a and R1b clades. They cultivated millet which was not cultivated in Central Asia and today’s Middle East until thousands of years after it was cultivated at Nabta Playa in Africa, and in Ukraine by Caucasus Hunter-gatherers and European populations. The archaeological evidence lacks a corroboration of a back migration from Eurasia but indicates that Niger-Congo speaking Africans from North Africa and the Sahara-Sahel, called Kushites in historical literature settled Crete, Iberia, and Anatolia. These Africans introduced R1b, the Bell Beaker, and the agro-pastoral cultural traditions into Eurasia during the Neolithic Period.

Sub-Saharan Africans had a long history in the Levant and Europe prior to the rise of the Caucasus hunter-gathers and European farmers populations (Holliday, 2000; Jones, et. al., 2015). The Niger-Congo speaking Africans and Dravidian speakers carried R1a and R1b first into Anatolia (Winters, 2010, 2017b, and throughout Europe.

Eurasian genomes of African origin were deposited in Eurasia first by African hunter-gatherers in Iberia carrying Y-Chromosome R1 clades eastward into Eastern Europe and the Steppes (Winters, 2017b) as indicated by the aDNA found in Vilabruna Man (R1bla) and Samara (R1b1) who are relatives of 88 (Kivisild, 2017; Winters 2017b). The global nature of R-L278 and R-L754 across Africa, east to west and north to south among populations fail to carry the R1 clades and lack Neanderthal ancestry does not support former conclusions of Haber et., al., (2016) that there was ever a backflow from Eurasia into Chad of Eurasian ancestry.

The V88 sub-clade had relatives in Early Neolithic samples from across a wide geographic area from Iberia eastward to Germany and Samara among the Yamnaya and Bell Beaker people. They were Africans, not Indo-Europeans because these cultural complexes who practiced these cultures originated in Africa. Ancient Europeans and Africans share R-L278 and R-L754. The earliest carrier of R-L278 in Europe was the hunter-gatherer. Villabruna man in Italy. This places Africans carrying R-L278 in Europe long before the origination of the Bell Beaker and Yamnaya cultures.

The African Diaspora to The Indian Subcontinent

India’s 160,000,000 million untouchables or Dalits are descendants of Africans who once ruled the Indus Valley. Cheikh Anta Diop wrote about this in his book The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality in 1974.  Caste discrimination affects all Black people, who are regarded as untouchables in the US and UK. It may seem ironic to many that India’s untouchable caste known as Dalits, were dehumanized in order to justify their enslavement to enrich the West.

Two papers published by African scholar and physicist Diop in 1955 and 1967 were translated from French to English and published as: The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality in 1974. In this book, as well as establishing the African origins of Egypt, Diop also revealed that Africans known as Dravidians created the Indus Valley Civilization.

Dravidians are a linguistic group under which many different groups fall, but many scholars aside from Diop, including Chiek Tidiane N Diave, S R Santharam, and U.Pupadhyaya Susheela O.Uphadyaya, have found both linguistic and cultural links between Dravidians and Africans.

Diop wrote: “…The Indo-Europeans never created a civilization in their own native lands: the Eurasian Plains. The civilizations attributed to them are inevitably located in the heart of Negro countries in the southern part of the northern hemisphere: Egypt, Arabia, Phoenicia, Mesopotamia, Elam, India. In all those lands there were Negro Civilizations when the Indo-Europeans arrived as rough nomads during the second millennium.”  Diop described Dravidians as a type of the Black Race with: “Black skin, often exceptionally black, with straight hair, aquiline nose, thin lips, an acute cheekbone angle. We find a prototype of this race in India: the Dravidian.”

Aside from the Dalits, India’s tribal groups make up another 84,000,000 of its population. They are clearly, physically, African, they are linguistically distinct, religiously distinct; you can connect their spiritual systems to the spiritual systems in Africa without ambiguity.

The Dalit sub-caste, Valmikis are descendants of the sweeping class from the Punjab Region of Non-Aryan groups including Greeks that came into the sub-continent. Because of their non-Aryan ancestry, they were placed into the lower caste groups. They traditionally carry out menial and degrading jobs such as cleaning toilets, removing human excrement with their bare hands.

In Bangladesh dark-skinned, short people assume a lowly status in society, despite the fact that 80 percent of its population is of that appearance: Individuals of foreign origin rule the country and not indigenous to Bangladesh, but they promote white supremacist ideals on the local people.

Diop proposed that Buddha was a black Egyptian priest who was driven out of the City of Memphis by Cambyses. Iniyan Elango, M.D, is the author of a book called Without Malice: The Truth About India. Elango suggests: “Gautama Buddha, the Black revolutionary who founded the egalitarian religion of Buddhism to counter and destroy the bigotry of Hinduism, was a Black prince. But the Hindus highjacked Buddhism and killed Buddhists in large numbers. The Buddhist missionaries fled to other parts of Asia and spread the message of the Buddha in China and other parts of Asia. Those indigenous Dravidians who were loyal to Buddha and resisted the caste system became the untouchable outcastes (Dalits).”