he poisoned by his wife? Did he die of a heart attack or stroke?
Was he wiped out by the Mob? We believe the US Government did a
"1-2 elimination." The question remains: Did he die at his
own hand, a heart attack (on record), the hand of his wife or from a
mysterious government conspiracy because of his BLACKNESS?
were not uncovered in the 1920’s by the press. Televisions,
computers and sophisticated research activities to “hype or
sensationalize” a report or story had not been invented.
Just recently I received an e-mail from a reader who was surprised to
read that people knew Harding was Black. He said, "I did not know that
anyone knew Harding was Black. My father who is now dead, was a little boy
in Washington during Harding's Administration." His uncle was a "Senator"
from Cleveland. He was Black passing as a son of a Cuban. I guess he
didn't know that Cuba is over 80% Black. His name was Vernil Harris."
Teapot Dome has connections to George W. Bush and especially Dick Cheney. NORAD
encryption uses fractalization from the oil at Teapot Dome Scandal. The US
was using the oil at Teapot Dome for early attempts at "Artificial
Intelligence" even in Harding's time. The basis for all US Codes and radio
encryption started in WW1 at Teapot Dome Scandal. It was this early work
that would eventually lead to the Breaking of Enigma's Code and Japan's
"Purple" Machine. There are indications that Harding was not aware of the
significance of Teapot Dome when he allowed the drilling rights to be
Death Warrant: Blackness
G. Harding and Jim Crow
growing up in the 1950's and 1960's we were told of our relationship
to one of the US presidents. My niece wrote an essay for her senior
English class explaining the Black lineage of Warren G. Harding. She
explained...."He could only find work as a teacher in a 'Colored
School' in Ohio in 1884--until he crossed the color line."
We were much older
when we realized the magnitude of government investigations relating
to his candidacy and office. We always knew he was Black--We were
cousins. It didn’t take Joel A. Rogers or Francis Russell to report
the dubbed “startling
discovery” to us. The birth records have been recorded in The Old
Settlers: A Nation Within Itself (1988).
(Both of his
parents were of African Ancestry)!
Harding -- Brothers -- John Harding
Harding II - (Warren's Father)
- (Shown in
Warren Gamaliel Harding - 29th President
Marshall Todd (Fourth Cousins)
(Todd)-Stewart (Fifth Cousins)
1850 Census - Hocking County, Ohio
Schedule I - Free Inhabitants in District 195
Number 195 In the County of Hocking 889 - Ass't
John, Mahala, Charles, Hester, Lucinda, Solomon,
Ana, Harrison, and Mary Harding are listed as free inhabitants.
In New Richmond Township - Clermont County Parkman
Academy school records state that William and Oliver Harding with
their sisters Virginia and Alameda were brought to the school by their
father, a wealthy slaveholder. Their mother had been his
slave. He was one of these tenderhearted slave holders who could not
sell his children, and who happily had enough wealth to set them free
and leave them in comfort. William, the oldest did not learn as fast
as the other children, but he was a good honest fellow. Virginia and Almeda were excellent girls. They progressed well in their studies. The sad intelligence came to us later that Almeda had hung herself in
the barn. These children were all agreeable, pleasant students,
except for a time Oliver was very contrary; but he was suspended from
school and in a little while he came to his senses and applied for
Mary Harding-Norman & Warren
(John & Charles) were brothers.
As you can see, President
first cousin is definitely not
Joe Doe Norman & Mary
(Shown below are Mary's sister
Ada Harding and sister-in-law
Ada Mae Harding-Nelson & Jessie
- (1898) (Ada was Mary Harding's Sister
shown in first picture)
Ada Mae (Harding) Nelson
Shown below is the marriage license for
Solomon and Jessie Harding--
Ada and Mary's parents (1879)
Warren's Third Cousins
Front Row: Minnie Norman, Emma
(My Grandmother) Addie Ceaser, and
Back Row: L-R: William Henderson,
Virginia (Harding) Wilson
Eva May Harding-Wilson Wells
Eva May (Wilson) Wells
Civic Leader (Chicago)
Mary Ellen Harding's Obituary that appeared
in a Mt. Pleasant, MI newspaper in 1931
Hardings were ancestors of Ada Jane Harding, Mayles Nelson and Mary Harding
(shown in pictures), mother of Emma Todd (Marsha Stewart’s
Lucinda Todd and Mary Lett Harper, also the Charles and Myrtle Kettora Lett
families. Richard Harding was the first generation of Hardings who came to
America. He settled in Braintree, Massachusetts. In 1623 Richard’s
daughter married a descendent of Francis Cook, who came over on the
generation was Stephen I and Abraham I. The third generation was Richard
II and Stephen II. The fourth generation was Abraham II. The fifth
generation was Abraham III. The sixth generation was Amos III. He is
listed as a West Indian and was born in Otisville, New York. His father was
John Harding, and his mother Rhoda King. Amos married Hulda Harding and
founded the Village of Clifford.
generation was George Tryon Harding I (1791-1860). His father was Amos
III. His first wife was Anna Roberts, and his second wife’s name was
Elizabeth. The eighth generation was Charles A. Harding born in 1820 in
Morrow County, Ohio. His wife was Mary Ann Crawford. The ninth generation
was Dr. George Tryon Harding II. He was born in 1844 and Warren’s father.
Warren had seven (7) brothers and sisters: Charity (Chat), Mary Clarissa
(named after her grandmother—like my Great Grandmother Mary
Thompson-Harding), Eleanor Persilla, Charles Alexsander, Abigail Victoria
(Daisy), Georye Tyron “Deac” and Phoebe Caroline (Carolyn)--teacher in a
Colored School in Washington DC.
John Harding was
married twice. Children by the first marriage were: Harson (Hank) and
Annie. His second marriage was to Malina Lett, the daughter of Charles and
Kettora Lett. Their children were: Solomon and Mary, also listed were
Charles, Lucinda and Hess Lett. Solomon was born in 1840 and spent his
early life in Maryland. He later moved to Hocking County, Ohio. Sometime
in the early 1870’s, he moved to Montcalm County, Michigan. He married
Elizabeth Jessie Smith in Stanton, Michigan. They had one daughter, Ada
Jane. They resided in the area until their death and both are buried at the
McBride’s Cemetery, McBride, Michigan. (Old Settlers Reunion Association,
“Hate thyself responsiveness” prevails and has
developed power--The power to destroy self, family, heritage and
race. “Hate thyself” was implanted deep into the conscious by the
White Masters to keep Blacks fighting and fearful of one other. Hate
is a controller. Blacks who pass for White say that they are Indians,
Spanish, Cuban, and Hawaiian and/or have Puerto Rican ancestry. By
giving people titles hidden within country of national origin
(nationality) and religion, anthropologists have been able to
re-classify Negroid people as pseudo White Egyptians, Moors,
Ethiopians, Arabs and Polynesians. The entire idea in all cases is to
dodge affirmation of Negro genealogy and to deny the Black Origin of
The newest code word is “multiracial” (replacing
"Mulatto")--a title used by Tiger Woods, Mirah Carey, and Julius
Erving’s illegitimate daughter. When Irving’s daughter--appeared on
ABC’s 20-20 late in the century--Barbara Walters ask her if she
classified herself as “Black.” She said, “Oh!!! No!!!” “I’m
multiracial,” —with her big protruded Black face. She looked as
“Blackened” as the next Negro. “Black is only a part of who I am.”
“I’m eight races.” “Do you want to hear them?” Black was the last
Tiger Woods made it known to America that he did not
want to be referred to as an "African-American." He wasn't Black.
People should keep their mouths closed if they don't know from whence
they speak. What Tiger Woods does not mention or did he know that his
mother is an admixture of the
indigenous people from Thailand
were Negroes in antiquity--You're still a Negro Mr. Tiger
Schizophrenic Slip-up!!! If over 78% of American
Blacks are already "multiracial" (of mixed heritage), the fight for a
new racial classification must come from White mothers having problems
accepting their "Black" children. They pass their psychological
mayhem to their offspring. With the help of the White parent the
Black children with White mothers fight to be multiracial/mulatto.
Warren G. Harding’s
Black heritage led to “motivated forgetting” on his behalf. It must be
noted that there is “motivated forgetting” on the part of one-quarter (1/4)
of all Americans who pass for “White.” He was not unlike most Black
Cousin Warren, like
one-quarter of those Americans who have crossed the color line, suffered
from an “associative disorder” which--currently would be labeled a “mental
illness.” Sigmund Freud suggests that we forget information because it’s
threatening to us in some way. The conscious mind often deals with
unpleasant or dangerous information by pushing it into unconsciousness--the
act of repression....The book Warren G. Harding, President of the
one of the rarest books ever printed in America. There are only three known
WHY IS THE GOVERNMENT SUPPRESSING THIS INFORMATION?
thereafter journalists and even some historians asserted that the papers
were burned. Adams so wrote in 1939 and followed in the same paragraph by
relating that government agents in 1922 destroyed a biography of Warren by
William Estabrook Chancellor (the author of the 1920 pamphlet on Negro
blood), as if the Harding Papers and the Chancellor biography were of the
same importance, doubtless realizing that his account gave the impression
that everything pertaining to Warren should be destroyed.
the “All-American Image.” To find out that his father George Tyron Harding
had thick lips, rolling eyes, and chocolate skin, Harding made the fall from
“All-American Image” to immoral. Chancellor made a direct connection
between sexual immorality and race. Since Harding was black, he was
sexually promiscuous that accounted for the many affairs he had while in the
153...Chancellor had written in his 1922 biography that Harding and Carrie
Phillips had met on occasion at Upper Sandusky, twenty miles north of
Marion. Nan Britton mentioned Carrie Phillips in--The President's Daughter
"a certain Mrs. Arnold." She repeated Chancellor's assertion that
Republican leaders in 1920 gave "Mrs. Arnold" money to go to Japan.
When letters from
Harding to Carrie Phillips emerged in 1963 Warren's heirs entered into a
7-year legal battle, which resulted in the letters being donated to the
Library of Congress and sealed until 2014. For nearly half a century, the
29th president of the United States had consistently finished last in polls
ranking the presidents. After Warren’s untimely death in 1923, a variety of
attacks and unsubstantiated claims left the public with a tainted impression
Soon after his
death, his reputation began to spiral downward. Rumors circulated of the
president's death by poison, either by his own hand or by that of his wife;
allegations of an illegitimate daughter were made; and question were raised
concerning the extent of Warren's knowledge of the Teapot Dome Scandal and
of irregularities in the Veterans' Bureau, as well as his tolerance of a
corrupt attorney general who was an Ohio political fixer.
Department did its best to suppress the story. One of its special
investigators, Gaston B. Means, tells how he bought up Chancellor’s book on
Harding, brought the books to Washington in a guarded express car and made a
bonfire. Means states: “I myself had helped light a bonfire that burnt up
the entire edition of this book--copyright and all--bought at a price.” And
the plates for this book were destroyed also. The bonfire was made in the
rear grounds around the palatial home of Mr. Boyd” (Rogers 11). The
references given below support my views.
I believe that
Warren didn’t want a legitimate child. Why?--The child might be born with
Black skin or curly hair; therefore, validating Black ethnicity. Blacks
were savages who lead an animal-like existence. The southern plantation was
“a school constantly training and controlling pupils who were in a BLACKWARD
state of civilization.” If Warren was poisoned by government officials, it
was done under the auspicious of “proper discipline” by “The Star
Jefferson--our 3rd President and father of Black children by a slave woman
advance it, therefore, as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether
originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are
inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.)
Of all the American
presidents who died in office, none had more questions surrounding his
sudden death than the 29th President, Warren Harding. The file is still
missing and is one of history's most famous cases. US National leaders denied the rumors by the
Democrats that Warren was Black. They exclaimed, “It can’t be true!” To
save face, President Woodrow Wilson (28th President) ordered pamphlets being
distributed by the Democratic Party destroyed. The
US Secret Service had their own investigation going on. In the
meantime, Warren repressed the idea of not being considered
human--classified as an animal--a dog, horse, or other domesticated animal.
He crossed the “color line” and became the 29th president of the United
States.....(In the meantime, Warren repressed the idea of not being
considered human--classified as an animal--a dog, horse, or other
domesticated animal. He crossed the “color line” and became the 29th
president of the United States.....(The
circumstance of superior beauty, is thought worthy attention in the breeding
of our horses, dogs, and other domestic animals; why not in that of
man?...Thomas Jefferson--3rd President of the US).
himself from his Black self and family. Associative sickness is marked by
a separation from or interruption of a person's fundamental aspects of
waking consciousness (such as who he was, what his personal history was,
etc.). His particular Associative Sickness stemmed from the trauma of being
Black.... (Thomas Jefferson...Comparing
them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to
me, that in memory they are equal to the Whites; in reason much inferior).
associative aspect is a coping mechanism--the person literally dissociates
himself from a situation or experience too traumatic to integrate with his
conscious. This disorder is characterized by a blocking out of critical
personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature.
The conflicts he
faced required him to choose between the presidency of the US and
alternatives that contained what he perceived to be negative
consequences--”Colored.” He chose the presidency. He was Black and knew
that if this were discovered, he would be impeached or assassinated. I
believe he was murdered. (Thomas
Jefferson...The improvement of the Blacks in body and mind, in the first
instance of their mixture with the whites, has been observed by every one,
and proves that their inferiority is not the effect merely of their
condition of life....)
We know that in the
1960’s the FBI followed “Black Nationalist” movements. A memo, FBI
Communiqué Number 157-601, was the product of a “counter-intelligence
program” run by special Agent Raymond N. Byers of the San Francisco office.
The subject was “racial intelligence.” Their aim was to stop “revolutionary
teaching” by Black Nationalist groups. There have been many political
situations reports about “the CIA’s secret operations, espionage,
counterespionage and covert actions that are of continuous activity
(Propaganda in Theory and Practice, 13).
There is a
relationship between stressful life events and physical illness, and Warren
suffered from stress and high blood pressure. I attribute this to his “repression”
--avoidance and thinking about the entire erasure of his Black
ancestry--that included the erasure of his family. There is early movie
footage shown by one of the cable history channels of Warren riding with the
Ku Klux Klan to burn houses and plant crosses in Black neighborhoods.
Warren perceived in
other Blacks qualities that he wished to deny in himself. There is
empirical evidence for defensive projection by Warren. He actively
suppressed thoughts about his Black characteristics and immediate Black
family. As a result, those trait concepts are used to interpret others'
behavior. People who avoid threatening characteristics--in this
case--ethnic/racial traits, deny possessing the traits. These
characteristics become “repressive.” Unfavorable Black ethnic/traits
can be attributed to a bias for Blacks who are “passing for
unfortunate difference of color, and perhaps of faculty, is a powerful
obstacle to the emancipation of these people.)
It didn’t take
Professor William Estabrook Chancellor of Wooster College (1920) to make a
study of the Harding family to supply the genealogical material for
“Murmuring Colored Campaign” Pamphlet. The Norman-Harding family could
have supplied the information--had we not been suppressed. Tens of
thousands pamphlets captioned “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” were distributed
countrywide by Democrats during the 1920 Presidential Campaign.
The Post Office
Department in San Francisco confiscated 250,000 flyers describing Warren’s
Negro ancestry that President Wilson ordered destroyed. Notice of the
“Murmuring Campaign” crept into newspapers. The president of Wooster and
trustees wanted a written denial that Harding was colored. When Chancellor
refused, the trustees unanimously requested his resignation.
Only the New
York Herald was bold enough to admit editorially that in the closing
hours of the campaign a dastardly conspiracy is put on foot to steal the
election through the insidious assertion that Warren G. Harding, Republican
candidate for President of the United States, is of Negro ancestry....In all
our political history. The Herald continued, there is nothing
comparable to this foul eleventh-hour attack on a presidential candidate
solely for the purpose of defrauding the Republican Party of its impending
Chancellor was the
superintendent and gave Harding’s sister, Mrs. Votaw, a job in the “Colored”
public schools of Washington DC. His sister also lived in a “Colored”
neighborhood. The Republican Party asked Warren to deny the story. His
comment: “How should I know. One of my ancestors might have jumped the
fence.” I remember being told when I was a child that at one point in
Warren’s life, the only job that he could get was a teacher in the local
“colored school in Ohio.” The Justice Department tried to suppress the
story. Chancellor’s book on Warren was brought to Washington in a guarded
express car and “made a big bonfire.” The plates were also destroyed (JA
The Most Scandalous
President – by Carl Sferrazza Anthony -- PERHAPS THE MOST SURPRISING single
event of Harding’s Presidency was his blunt speech on October 26, 1921, to a
segregated crowd in Birmingham, Alabama, stating that democracy would always
be a sham until African Americans received full equality in education,
employment, and political life. Harding went further than any of his
predecessors since Lincoln to call for “an end to prejudice." The first
President to discuss civil rights in the South so frankly, he was loudly
cheered by blacks and met with silent stares from whites as he declared: “I
want to see the time come when black men will regard themselves as full
participants in the benefits and duties of American citizenship. . . . We
cannot go on, as we have gone on for more than half a century, with one
great section of our population . . . set off from the real contribution to
solving national issues, because of a division of race lines. . . . Let the
black man vote when he is fit to vote, prohibit the white man [from] voting
when he is unfit to vote.” HE CERTAINLY WANTED HIS FAMILY TO HAVE THE CIVIL
RIGHTS HE HAD ENJOYED SINCE CROSSING THE "COLOR LINE."
who was the third president of the US, presented a hard act for Warren to
follow. Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence
and one of the professed great champions of human freedom and the rights of
man. He even built a home on Monticello--his plantation--with his mistress,
Black children and other slaves--that stands today as a monument. The
Constitutional framers’ attitude toward liberty and equality believed that
all men--at least White men--were equally entitled to life, liberty, and the
pursuit of happiness. The Framers changed “pursuit of happiness” to
“property” in the Bill of Rights. Like the Declaration, the
Constitution refers to “men,” not to “slaves/chattel” who enjoyed
neither liberty nor equality (Burns, 101). Read the following, and you
don’t know who is writing--Jefferson or Adolf Hitler:
View of Blacks:
(The lover of a Black mistress--Sally Hemmings and the
father of Black Children has glorified the love relationship between
Jefferson and Hemmings.
What a hoax some of us tend to believe).
These disapprovals according to Jefferson are
political, physical and moral. The first difference, which strikes us,
is that of color. Whether the black of the Negro resides in the
reticular membrane between the skin and scarf-skin, or in the
scarf-skin itself; whether it proceeds from the color of the blood,
the color of the bile, or from that of some other secretion, the
difference is fixed in nature, and is as real as if its seat and their
own judgment in favor of the whites, declared by their preference of
them, as uniformly as is the preference of the Octoroon for the Black
women over those of his own species. The circumstance of superior
beauty, is thought worthy attention in the breeding of our horses,
dogs, and other domestic animals; why not in that of man?
Besides those of color, figure, and hair, there are
other physical distinctions proving a difference of race. They have
less hair on the face and body. They secrete less by the kidneys, and
more by the glands of the skin, which gives them a very strong and
disagreeable odor. This greater degree of occurrence renders them more
tolerant of heat, and less so of cold, than the whites. Perhaps too a
difference of structure in the pulmonary apparatus with skillful
experimentation discovering to be the principal regulator of animal
They seem to require less sleep. A Black, after hard
labor through the day, will be induced by the slightest amusements to
sit up till midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out with the
first dawn of the morning. They are brave and more adventuresome. But
this may perhaps proceed from foresight, which prevents their seeing
danger until it is present. When present, Blacks do not go through it
with more coolness or steadiness than Whites. They are more spirited
behind their female: but love seems with them to be more an eager
desire, than a tender delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation.
Their grief is temporary. An animal whose body is at rest, and who
does not reflect, must be disposed to sleep.
Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason,
and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to
the Whites; in reason much inferior. One could scarcely be found
capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid; and
that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous. It would
be unfair to follow them to Africa for this investigation. We will
consider them here, on the same stage with the Whites, and where the
facts are of doubtful authenticity on which a judgment is to be
formed. It will be right to make great allowances for the difference
of condition, of education, of conversation, of the sphere in which
they move. Many millions of them have been brought to and born in
Religion indeed has produced a Phyllis Whately; but it
could not produce a poet. The compositions published under her name
are below the dignity of criticism. The heroes of the Dunciad are to
her, as Hercules to the author of that poem. Ignatius Sancho has
approached nearer to merit in composition; yet his letters do more
honors to the heart than the head.
They breathe the purest effusions of friendship and
general philanthropy, and show how great a degree of the latter may be
compounded with strong religious zeal. The improvement of the Blacks
in body and mind, in the first instance of their mixture with the
whites, has been observed by every one, and proves that their
inferiority is not the effect merely of their condition of life.... I
advance it therefore as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether
originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and
circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of
body and mind.
This unfortunate difference of color, and perhaps of
faculty, is a powerful obstacle to the emancipation of these people.
Many of their advocates, while they wish to vindicate the liberty of
human nature, are anxious also to preserve its dignity and beauty.
The slave, when made free, might mix with, without staining the blood
of his master. But with us a second is necessary, unknown to history.
When freed, he is to be removed beyond the reach of mixture.
as part of its good neighbor policy, caters to Latin Americans who
also yearn to be White. The 1940 US census listed Mexicans as White.
The US Census lists Arabs and American Natives as White. Anyone who has been
to Mexico and seen the bulk of its population would laugh (Rogers,
11). In fact, anybody who has been in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, India
and Pakistan would be bent over a barrel in laughter. Puerto Ricans
and Cubans will tell you in a heartbeat that they are not Black—”I’m
Puerto Rican” or “I’m Cuban--which is a nationality.” The validation
remains: There were three-quarters (3/4, .75, 75%) more African
slaves taken to Central America, South America and the Caribbean than
to the US. It has been determined that close to 70 percent of the
Cuban population are Negroid. The
Negritos peopled India
and Pakistan along with other Oceanic Islands.
With the White man comes a hellish day of
reckoning. He represents the bloodline poisoned by slave catching, Black
human extermination, colonialism, race theorizing, genetic color elimination
and racial cleansing.
Thick Trees surround us.
Hide from massa.
Hide from the bloodthirsty hounds.
The scary howls of
laughter from the slave catchers
swelled over and
over again echoing our epitaphs.
hanging from the end of a rope.
Our loved ones back
there recite our eulogies.
The barking hounds
Deep within the
Massa’s house was the history of our bondage.
The dry grass crunched
beneath our feet announcing our whereabouts.
We were just more dead
The grass exposed us.
Our sweat exposed us.
The will for escape
pushed us on to freedom.
Echoes of the
bloodthirsty hounds chanted, “Kill the Niggers.”
We made it to the
The hounds lose our
The challenge of
freedom made us push forward using the North Star as a guide.
In 1860 drastic changes were taking place in
America. After escaping slavery
these Old Settlers migrated out of Ontario, Canada and headed North to the
central part of Michigan. They came in covered wagons drawn by oxen. With
the allurement of free land, our ancestors felt a vital need to move. They
represent the original Black settlement of those northern cities. For 150
years their homestead property remains in the family.
We believe that our
forefathers gave us the spirit of persistence and endurance. Our
spirituality depends on how deep within we are able to grasp the courage of
our ancestors. My ancestors passed their cultural and oral traditions to
My great-great grandfather ran away
with the master’s daughter. Five families were together when they came from
Canada to settle in Mecosta, Montcalm, and Isabella Counties in the central
part of Michigan.
They brought with
them many spirits and legacies of history that were to be passed down for
generations. My legacy has been the ability to trace my roots through
their genealogy. Stephen Todd was born
in Garrard County, Kentucky around 1826. He was born to a slave woman
and plantation owner and was a house slave.
great-great grandparents settled in Remus,
Michigan, located in Mecosta County on homestead property. Once they
had farmed the property, they were able to claim it as their own.
Their property amounted to 624 acres, and the original farm still remains in
the Todd family.
This story is
about my grandfather and Grandmother William and Emma Todd. Grandpa Todd
was the child of Stephen and Caroline Todd.
"The Four Mysteries of Warren Harding." (April 1963): 4-10, 81-86.
Ferrell, Robert H.
The Strange Deaths of President Harding, Columbia & London: (University of Missouri Press)
The Shadow of Blooming Grove: Warren G. Harding in his Times, New
York: McGraw Hill, 1968.
Rogers, J. A. The Five
Negro Presidents, St. Petersburg, FL: 1965.
Rogers, J. A. World’s Great Men of Color, Volume 1 New York: Simon
& Schuster, 1996.
Marsha Warren G. Harding: Death by Blackness, Charlotte:
Conquering Books, 2005.