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Warren Gamaliel Harding - (1865-1923)

29th President of the United States


Was he poisoned by his wife?  Did he die of a heart attack or stroke?  Was he wiped out by the Mob?  We believe the US Government did a "1-2 elimination."  The question remains:  Did he die at his own hand, a heart attack (on record), the hand of his wife or from a mysterious government conspiracy because of his BLACKNESS? 


Government conspiracies were not  uncovered in the 1920’s by the press. Televisions, computers and sophisticated research activities to “hype or sensationalize” a report or story had not been invented. 



Just recently I received an e-mail from a reader who was surprised to read that people knew Harding was Black.  He said,  "I did not know that anyone knew Harding was Black. My father who is now dead, was a little boy in Washington during Harding's Administration." His uncle was a "Senator" from Cleveland.  He was Black passing as a son of a Cuban. I guess he didn't know that Cuba is over 80% Black.  His name was Vernil Harris."


Teapot Dome has connections to George W. Bush and especially Dick Cheney.  NORAD encryption uses fractalization from the oil at Teapot Dome Scandal.  The US was using the oil at Teapot Dome for early attempts at "Artificial Intelligence" even in Harding's time. The basis for all US Codes and radio encryption started in WW1 at Teapot Dome Scandal.  It was this early work that would eventually lead to the Breaking of Enigma's Code and Japan's "Purple" Machine.  There are indications that Harding was not aware of the significance of Teapot Dome when he allowed the drilling rights to be transferred.


   Warren's Death Warrant:  Blackness


Warren G. Harding and Jim Crow



While growing up in the 1950's and 1960's we were told of our relationship to one of the US presidents.  My niece wrote an essay for her senior English class explaining the Black lineage of Warren G. Harding.  She explained...."He could only find work as a teacher in a 'Colored School' in Ohio in 1884--until he crossed the color line."  We were much older when we realized the magnitude of government investigations relating to his candidacy and office.  We always knew he was Black--We were cousins.  It didn’t take Joel A. Rogers or Francis Russell to report the dubbed “startling discovery” to us.  The birth records have been recorded in The Old Settlers:  A Nation Within Itself (1988).


(Both of his parents were of African Ancestry)!


Charles A. Harding -- Brothers -- John Harding


George Tryon Harding II - (Warren's Father) 

Mary (Harding)-Norman - (Shown in picture below)

                     (First Cousins)                           


         Warren Gamaliel Harding - 29th President           

Emma (Norman-Harding)-Todd

(Third Cousins)


              Marshall Todd    (Fourth Cousins)               

Marsha (Todd)-Stewart (Fifth Cousins)


1850 Census - Hocking County, Ohio

Schedule I - Free Inhabitants in District 195

Number 195 In the County of Hocking 889 - Ass't Marshal #445


John, Mahala, Charles, Hester, Lucinda, Solomon, Ana, Harrison, and Mary Harding are listed as free inhabitants. 


In New Richmond Township - Clermont County Parkman Academy school records state that William and Oliver Harding with their sisters Virginia and Alameda were brought to the school by their father, a wealthy slaveholder. Their mother had been his slave.  He was one of these tenderhearted slave holders who could not sell his children, and who happily had enough wealth to set them free and leave them in comfort.  William, the oldest did not learn as fast as the other children, but he was a good honest fellow.  Virginia and Almeda were excellent girls. They progressed well in their studies.  The sad intelligence came to us later that Almeda had hung herself in the barn. These children were all agreeable, pleasant students, except for a time Oliver was very contrary; but he was suspended from school and in a little while he came to his senses and applied for restoration.




Mary Harding-Norman & Warren

Harding's fathers 

(John & Charles) were brothers.  

As you can see, President Harding's

first cousin is definitely not WHITE.

Joe Doe Norman & Mary


(Shown below are Mary's sister

Ada Harding and sister-in-law

Jessie Harding). 

Ada Mae Harding-Nelson & Jessie Smith

 - (1898)  (Ada was Mary Harding's Sister

shown in first picture)


Ada Mae (Harding) Nelson

Shown below is the marriage license for

 Solomon and Jessie Harding--

Ada and Mary's parents (1879)



Warren's Third Cousins 

Front Row:   Minnie Norman, Emma (Harding) Norman

(My Grandmother) Addie Ceaser, and Lucinda Norman.  

Back Row:  L-R:  William Henderson, John Norman 


Virginia (Harding) Wilson

Mother of

Eva May Harding-Wilson Wells

Eva May (Wilson) Wells

Civic Leader (Chicago)



Mary Ellen Harding's Obituary that appeared

in a Mt. Pleasant, MI newspaper in 1931



The Hardings were ancestors of Ada Jane Harding, Mayles Nelson and Mary Harding (shown in pictures), mother of Emma Todd (Marsha Stewart’s grandmother), Lucinda Todd and Mary Lett Harper, also the Charles and Myrtle Kettora Lett families.  Richard Harding was the first generation of Hardings who came to America.  He settled in Braintree, Massachusetts.  In 1623 Richard’s daughter married a descendent of Francis Cook, who came over on the Mayflower. 


The second generation was Stephen I and Abraham I.  The third generation was Richard II and Stephen II.  The fourth generation was Abraham II.  The fifth generation was Abraham III.  The sixth generation was Amos III.  He is listed as a West Indian and was born in Otisville, New York.  His father was John Harding, and his mother Rhoda King.  Amos married Hulda Harding and founded the Village of Clifford. 


The seventh generation was George Tryon Harding I (1791-1860).  His father was Amos III.  His first wife was Anna Roberts, and his second wife’s name was Elizabeth.  The eighth generation was Charles A. Harding born in 1820 in Morrow County, Ohio.  His wife was Mary Ann Crawford.  The ninth generation was Dr. George Tryon Harding II. He was born in 1844 and Warren’s father.  Warren had seven (7) brothers and sisters:  Charity (Chat), Mary Clarissa (named after her grandmother—like my Great Grandmother Mary Thompson-Harding), Eleanor Persilla, Charles Alexsander, Abigail Victoria (Daisy), Georye Tyron “Deac” and Phoebe Caroline (Carolyn)--teacher in a Colored School in Washington DC.   


John Harding was married twice.  Children by the first marriage were:  Harson (Hank) and Annie.  His second marriage was to Malina Lett, the daughter of Charles and Kettora Lett.  Their children were:  Solomon and Mary, also listed were Charles, Lucinda and Hess Lett.  Solomon was born in 1840 and spent his early life in Maryland.  He later moved to Hocking County, Ohio.  Sometime in the early 1870’s, he moved to Montcalm County, Michigan.  He married Elizabeth Jessie Smith in Stanton, Michigan.  They had one daughter, Ada Jane.  They resided in the area until their death and both are buried at the McBride’s Cemetery, McBride, Michigan. (Old Settlers Reunion Association, 1988).


“Hate thyself responsiveness” prevails and has developed power--The power to destroy self, family, heritage and race.  “Hate thyself” was implanted deep into the conscious by the White Masters to keep Blacks fighting and fearful of one other.  Hate is a controller.  Blacks who pass for White say that they are Indians, Spanish, Cuban, and Hawaiian and/or have Puerto Rican ancestry.  By giving people titles hidden within country of national origin (nationality) and religion, anthropologists have been able to re-classify Negroid people as pseudo White Egyptians, Moors, Ethiopians, Arabs and Polynesians.  The entire idea in all cases is to dodge affirmation of Negro genealogy and to deny the Black Origin of Mankind.


The newest code word is “multiracial” (replacing "Mulatto")--a title used by Tiger Woods, Mirah Carey, and Julius Erving’s illegitimate daughter. When Irving’s daughter--appeared on ABC’s 20-20 late in the century--Barbara Walters ask her if she classified herself as “Black.”  She said, “Oh!!! No!!!”  “I’m multiracial,” —with her big protruded Black face.  She looked as “Blackened” as the next Negro.  “Black is only a part of who I am.”  “I’m eight races.”  “Do you want to hear them?”  Black was the last race mentioned. 


Tiger Woods made it known to America that he did not want to be referred to as an "African-American."  He wasn't Black. People should keep their mouths closed if they don't know from whence they speak.  What Tiger Woods does not mention or did he know that his mother is an admixture of the Negrito from Thailand.  The indigenous people from Thailand were Negroes in antiquity--You're still a Negro Mr. Tiger Negrito Woods.


Schizophrenic Slip-up!!!  If over 78% of American Blacks are already "multiracial" (of mixed heritage), the fight for a new racial classification must come from White mothers having problems accepting their "Black" children.  They pass their psychological mayhem to their offspring.  With the help of the White parent the Black children with White mothers fight to be multiracial/mulatto.



Warren G. Harding’s Black heritage led to “motivated forgetting” on his behalf.  It must be noted that there is “motivated forgetting” on the part of one-quarter (1/4) of all Americans who pass for “White.”  He was not unlike most Black Americans.  


Cousin Warren, like one-quarter of those Americans who have crossed the color line, suffered from an “associative disorder” which--currently would be labeled a “mental illness.”  Sigmund Freud suggests that we forget information because it’s threatening to us in some way.  The conscious mind often deals with unpleasant or dangerous information by pushing it into unconsciousness--the act of repression....The book Warren G. Harding, President of the United States, is one of the rarest books ever printed in America.  There are only three known copies.




For years thereafter journalists and even some historians asserted that the papers were burned.  Adams so wrote in 1939 and followed in the same paragraph by relating that government agents in 1922 destroyed a biography of Warren by William Estabrook Chancellor (the author of the 1920 pamphlet on Negro blood), as if the Harding Papers and the Chancellor biography were of the same importance, doubtless realizing that his account gave the impression that everything pertaining to Warren should be destroyed.


Harding represented the “All-American Image.”  To find out that his father George Tyron Harding had thick lips, rolling eyes, and chocolate skin, Harding made the fall from “All-American Image” to immoral.  Chancellor made a direct connection between sexual immorality and race.  Since Harding was black, he was sexually promiscuous that accounted for the many affairs he had while in the White House.


On page 153...Chancellor had written in his 1922 biography that Harding and Carrie Phillips had met on occasion at Upper Sandusky, twenty miles north of Marion.  Nan Britton mentioned Carrie Phillips in--The President's Daughter "a certain Mrs. Arnold."  She repeated Chancellor's assertion that Republican leaders in 1920 gave "Mrs. Arnold" money to go to Japan.


When letters from Harding to Carrie Phillips emerged in 1963 Warren's heirs entered into a 7-year legal battle, which resulted in the letters being donated to the Library of Congress and sealed until 2014. For nearly half a century, the 29th president of the United States had consistently finished last in polls ranking the presidents. After Warren’s untimely death in 1923, a variety of attacks and unsubstantiated claims left the public with a tainted impression of him.


Soon after his death, his reputation began to spiral downward.  Rumors circulated of the president's death by poison, either by his own hand or by that of his wife; allegations of an illegitimate daughter were made; and question were raised concerning the extent of Warren's knowledge of the Teapot Dome Scandal and of irregularities in the Veterans' Bureau, as well as his tolerance of a corrupt attorney general who was an Ohio political fixer.        


The Justice Department did its best to suppress the story.  One of its special investigators, Gaston B. Means, tells how he bought up Chancellor’s book on Harding, brought the books to Washington in a guarded express car and made a bonfire. Means states:  “I myself had helped light a bonfire that burnt up the entire edition of this book--copyright and all--bought at a price.” And the plates for this book were destroyed also.  The bonfire was made in the rear grounds around the palatial home of Mr. Boyd” (Rogers 11). The references given below support my views.


I believe that Warren didn’t want a legitimate child.  Why?--The child might be born with Black skin or curly hair; therefore, validating Black ethnicity.  Blacks were savages who lead an animal-like existence.  The southern plantation was “a school constantly training and controlling pupils who were in a BLACKWARD state of civilization.”  If Warren was poisoned by government officials, it was done under the auspicious of “proper discipline” by “The Star Strangled Banner.


Thomas Jefferson--our 3rd President and father of Black children by a slave woman iterates...(I advance it, therefore, as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.)  


Of all the American presidents who died in office, none had more questions surrounding his sudden death than the 29th President, Warren Harding.  The file is still missing and is one of history's most famous cases.  US National leaders denied the rumors by the Democrats that Warren was Black.  They exclaimed, “It can’t be true!”  To save face, President Woodrow Wilson (28th President) ordered pamphlets being distributed by the Democratic Party destroyed. The US Secret Service had their own investigation going on.  In the meantime, Warren repressed the idea of not being considered human--classified as an animal--a dog, horse, or other domesticated animal.  He crossed the “color line” and became the 29th president of the United States.....(In the meantime, Warren repressed the idea of not being considered human--classified as an animal--a dog, horse, or other domesticated animal.  He crossed the “color line” and became the 29th president of the United States.....(The circumstance of superior beauty, is thought worthy attention in the breeding of our horses, dogs, and other domestic animals; why not in that of man?...Thomas Jefferson--3rd President of the US).  


Warren dissociated himself from his Black self and family.   Associative sickness is marked by a separation from or interruption of a person's fundamental aspects of waking consciousness (such as who he was, what his personal history was, etc.).  His particular Associative Sickness stemmed from the trauma of being Black.... (Thomas Jefferson...Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the Whites; in reason much inferior).  The associative  aspect is a coping mechanism--the person literally dissociates himself from a situation or experience too traumatic to integrate with his conscious.  This disorder is characterized by a blocking out of critical personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature.


The conflicts he faced required him to choose between the presidency of the US and alternatives that contained what he perceived to be negative consequences--”Colored.”  He chose the presidency.  He was Black and knew that if this were discovered, he would be impeached or assassinated. I believe he was murdered. (Thomas Jefferson...The improvement of the Blacks in body and mind, in the first instance of their mixture with the whites, has been observed by every one, and proves that their inferiority is not the effect merely of their condition of life....)


We know that in the 1960’s the FBI followed “Black Nationalist” movements.  A memo, FBI Communiqué Number 157-601, was the product of a “counter-intelligence program” run by special Agent Raymond N. Byers of the San Francisco office.  The subject was “racial intelligence.”  Their aim was to stop “revolutionary teaching” by Black Nationalist groups.  There have been many political situations reports about “the CIA’s secret operations, espionage, counterespionage and covert actions that are of continuous activity (Propaganda in Theory and Practice, 13).  


There is a relationship between stressful life events and physical illness, and Warren suffered from stress and high blood pressure.  I attribute this to his “repression” --avoidance and thinking about the entire erasure of his Black ancestry--that included the erasure of his family.  There is early movie footage shown by one of the cable history channels of Warren riding with the Ku Klux Klan to burn houses and plant crosses in Black neighborhoods.


Warren perceived in other Blacks qualities that he wished to deny in himself.  There is empirical evidence for defensive projection by Warren.  He actively suppressed thoughts about his Black characteristics and immediate Black family.  As a result, those trait concepts are used to interpret others' behavior.  People who avoid threatening characteristics--in this case--ethnic/racial traits, deny possessing the traits.  These characteristics become “repressive.”  Unfavorable Black ethnic/traits can be attributed to a bias for Blacks who are “passing for White.....”(Thomas Jefferson...This unfortunate difference of color, and perhaps of faculty, is a powerful obstacle to the emancipation of these people.)  


It didn’t take Professor William Estabrook Chancellor of Wooster College (1920) to make a study of the Harding family to supply the genealogical material for “Murmuring Colored Campaign” Pamphlet.  The Norman-Harding family could have supplied the information--had we not been suppressed.  Tens of thousands pamphlets captioned “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” were distributed countrywide by Democrats during the 1920 Presidential Campaign.  


The Post Office Department in San Francisco confiscated 250,000 flyers describing Warren’s Negro ancestry that President Wilson ordered destroyed. Notice of the “Murmuring Campaign” crept into newspapers. The president of Wooster and trustees wanted a written denial that Harding was colored. When Chancellor refused, the trustees unanimously requested his resignation.


Only the New York Herald was bold enough to admit editorially that in the closing hours of the campaign a dastardly conspiracy is put on foot to steal the election through the insidious assertion that Warren G. Harding, Republican candidate for President of the United States, is of Negro ancestry....In all our political history.  The Herald continued, there is nothing comparable to this foul eleventh-hour attack on a presidential candidate solely for the purpose of defrauding the Republican Party of its impending victory.


Chancellor was the superintendent and gave Harding’s sister, Mrs. Votaw, a job in the “Colored” public schools of Washington DC.  His sister also lived in a “Colored” neighborhood.  The Republican Party asked Warren to deny the story.  His comment:  “How should I know.  One of my ancestors might have jumped the fence.”  I remember being told when I was a child that at one point in Warren’s life, the only job that he could get was a teacher in the local “colored school in Ohio.”  The Justice Department tried to suppress the story.  Chancellor’s book on Warren was brought to Washington in a guarded express car and “made a big bonfire.”  The plates were also destroyed (JA Rogers, 12).   


The Most Scandalous President – by Carl Sferrazza Anthony -- PERHAPS THE MOST SURPRISING single event of Harding’s Presidency was his blunt speech on October 26, 1921, to a segregated crowd in Birmingham, Alabama, stating that democracy would always be a sham until African Americans received full equality in education, employment, and political life. Harding went further than any of his predecessors since Lincoln to call for “an end to prejudice." The first President to discuss civil rights in the South so frankly, he was loudly cheered by blacks and met with silent stares from whites as he declared: “I want to see the time come when black men will regard themselves as full participants in the benefits and duties of American citizenship. . . . We cannot go on, as we have gone on for more than half a century, with one great section of our population . . . set off from the real contribution to solving national issues, because of a division of race lines. . . . Let the black man vote when he is fit to vote, prohibit the white man [from] voting when he is unfit to vote.”  HE CERTAINLY WANTED HIS FAMILY TO HAVE THE CIVIL RIGHTS HE HAD ENJOYED SINCE CROSSING THE "COLOR LINE."


Thomas Jefferson, who was the third president of the US, presented a hard act for Warren to follow.  Jefferson was the author of the Declaration of Independence and one of the professed great champions of human freedom and the rights of man.  He even built a home on Monticello--his plantation--with his mistress, Black children and other slaves--that stands today as a monument.  The Constitutional framers’ attitude toward liberty and equality believed that all men--at least White men--were equally entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.  The Framers changed “pursuit of happiness” to “property” in the Bill of Rights.  Like the Declaration, the Constitution refers to “men,” not to “slaves/chattel” who enjoyed neither liberty nor equality (Burns, 101).  Read the following, and you don’t know who is writing--Jefferson or Adolf Hitler:


Thomas Jefferson’s View of Blacks:


(The lover of a Black mistress--Sally Hemmings and the father of Black Children has glorified the love relationship between Jefferson and Hemmings.  What a hoax some of us tend to believe).


These disapprovals according to Jefferson are political, physical and moral. The first difference, which strikes us, is that of color. Whether the black of the Negro resides in the reticular membrane between the skin and scarf-skin, or in the scarf-skin itself; whether it proceeds from the color of the blood, the color of the bile, or from that of some other secretion, the difference is fixed in nature, and is as real as if its seat and their own judgment in favor of the whites, declared by their preference of them, as uniformly as is the preference of the Octoroon for the Black women over those of his own species. The circumstance of superior beauty, is thought worthy attention in the breeding of our horses, dogs, and other domestic animals; why not in that of man?


Besides those of color, figure, and hair, there are other physical distinctions proving a difference of race. They have less hair on the face and body. They secrete less by the kidneys, and more by the glands of the skin, which gives them a very strong and disagreeable odor. This greater degree of occurrence renders them more tolerant of heat, and less so of cold, than the whites. Perhaps too a difference of structure in the pulmonary apparatus with skillful experimentation discovering to be the principal regulator of animal heat.


They seem to require less sleep. A Black, after hard labor through the day, will be induced by the slightest amusements to sit up till midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out with the first dawn of the morning. They are brave and more adventuresome. But this may perhaps proceed from foresight, which prevents their seeing danger until it is present. When present, Blacks do not go through it with more coolness or steadiness than Whites. They are more spirited behind their female: but love seems with them to be more an eager desire, than a tender delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation. Their grief is temporary.  An animal whose body is at rest, and who does not reflect, must be disposed to sleep.


Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the Whites; in reason much inferior.  One could scarcely be found capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid; and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous. It would be unfair to follow them to Africa for this investigation. We will consider them here, on the same stage with the Whites, and where the facts are of doubtful authenticity on which a judgment is to be formed. It will be right to make great allowances for the difference of condition, of education, of conversation, of the sphere in which they move. Many millions of them have been brought to and born in America.  


Religion indeed has produced a Phyllis Whately; but it could not produce a poet. The compositions published under her name are below the dignity of criticism. The heroes of the Dunciad are to her, as Hercules to the author of that poem. Ignatius Sancho has approached nearer to merit in composition; yet his letters do more honors to the heart than the head. 


They breathe the purest effusions of friendship and general philanthropy, and show how great a degree of the latter may be compounded with strong religious zeal.  The improvement of the Blacks in body and mind, in the first instance of their mixture with the whites, has been observed by every one, and proves that their inferiority is not the effect merely of their condition of life.... I advance it therefore as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind.


This unfortunate difference of color, and perhaps of faculty, is a powerful obstacle to the emancipation of these people. Many of their advocates, while they wish to vindicate the liberty of human nature, are anxious also to preserve its dignity and beauty.  The slave, when made free, might mix with, without staining the blood of his master. But with us a second is necessary, unknown to history. When freed, he is to be removed beyond the reach of mixture.  


The United States, as part of its good neighbor policy, caters to Latin Americans who also yearn to be White.  The 1940 US census listed Mexicans as White.  The US Census lists Arabs and American Natives as White.  Anyone who has been to Mexico and seen the bulk of its population would laugh (Rogers, 11).  In fact, anybody who has been in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, India and Pakistan would be bent over a barrel in laughter.  Puerto Ricans and Cubans will tell you in a heartbeat that they are not Black—”I’m Puerto Rican” or “I’m Cuban--which is a nationality.”  The validation remains:  There were three-quarters (3/4, .75, 75%) more African slaves taken to Central America, South America and the Caribbean than to the US.  It has been determined that close to 70 percent of the Cuban population are Negroid.  The Negritos peopled India and Pakistan along with other Oceanic Islands.





With the White man comes a hellish day of reckoning. He represents the bloodline poisoned by slave catching, Black human extermination, colonialism, race theorizing, genetic color elimination and racial cleansing. 



Thick Trees surround us.

Hide from massa.

Hide from the bloodthirsty hounds.

The scary howls of laughter from the slave catchers

swelled over and over again echoing our epitaphs.

We visualize hanging from the end of a rope.

Our loved ones back there recite our eulogies.

The barking hounds stalk us.

Deep within the Massa’s house was the history of our bondage.

The dry grass crunched beneath our feet announcing our whereabouts.

We were just more dead Niggers.

The grass exposed us.

Our sweat exposed us.

The will for escape pushed us on to freedom.

Echoes of the bloodthirsty hounds chanted, “Kill the Niggers.”

We made it to the river.

The hounds lose our scent.

The challenge of freedom made us push forward using the North Star as a guide. 






In 1860 drastic changes were taking place in America.  After escaping slavery these Old Settlers migrated out of Ontario, Canada and headed North to the central part of Michigan.  They came in covered wagons drawn by oxen.  With the allurement of free land, our ancestors felt a vital need to move. They represent the original Black settlement of those northern cities.  For 150 years their homestead property remains in the family.


Spirituality & Apparitions  


We believe that our forefathers gave us the spirit of persistence and endurance.  Our spirituality depends on how deep within we are able to grasp the courage of our ancestors.  My ancestors passed their cultural and oral traditions to family members.  My great-great grandfather ran away with the master’s daughter. Five families were together when they came from Canada to settle in Mecosta, Montcalm, and Isabella Counties in the central part of Michigan.  They brought with them many spirits and legacies of history that were to be passed down for generations.  My legacy has been the ability to trace my roots through their genealogy.  Stephen Todd was born in Garrard County, Kentucky around 1826.  He was born to a slave woman and plantation owner and was a house slave.  My great-great grandparents settled in Remus, Michigan, located in Mecosta County on homestead property.  Once they had farmed the property, they were able to claim it as their own.  Their property amounted to 624 acres, and the original farm still remains in the Todd family.  This story is about my grandfather and Grandmother William and Emma Todd.  Grandpa Todd was the child of Stephen and Caroline Todd.







American Heritage "The Four Mysteries of Warren Harding." (April 1963): 4-10, 81-86.   


Ferrell, Robert H. The Strange Deaths of President Harding, Columbia & London:  (University of Missouri Press) 1996.  


Francis, Russell. The Shadow of Blooming Grove:  Warren G. Harding in his Times, New York:  McGraw Hill, 1968.  


Rogers, J. A. The Five Negro Presidents, St. Petersburg, FL:  1965.  


Rogers, J. A. World’s Great Men of Color, Volume 1   New York:  Simon & Schuster, 1996.


Stewart, Marsha Warren G. Harding:  Death by Blackness, Charlotte:  Conquering Books, 2005.