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The Original Eve &

Bible Translations

While archaeology cannot prove the Bible is inspired and revealed by God, it can prove the historical accuracy and trustworthiness of what is recorded on its pages.  Plenty of archaeological evidence exists to support the historical accuracy of the Bile we read today.


Personally I believe that Christianity practices a form of "Replacement Theology" because  so called "authority figures" have deliberately mistranslated the Renewed Covenant--New Testament.  The “Church” has been doing this since the second century CE.  To mistranslate it to make it more Christian, Protestant, Catholic, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, etc. in viewpoint is wrong.  The Bible is the word of God not the book of the organized “Churches.” 


The Original Eve

The skull was uncovered in the Qafzeh Cave in Palestine in 1969. 

The earliest documentation of antiquity for me is the Bible.  It has always been a personal quest to unearth the land and people behind the names and countries mentioned in Sunday school.  Logically speaking, I never believed the Sunday School teacher that I was a "cursed" human being. Nor did I believe people took offense to Moses' wife being Black when Moses was Black himself.  The big deal wasn't that she was "Black."  The big deal was that she was from another country--Ethiopia. And I wondered how Mary could be a virgin if Jesus had an older brother named James although some same Joseph has an older son? The writings of the early church fathers point to the fact that James was the son of Joseph and Mary and the full biological brother of Jesus.  Do you as a reader ask the same questions? 


It is my personal belief that only lunatics would believe the following passages as justification for slavery.  In our time it is the same lunacy that drove the invasion of Iraq, destruction of temples, and looting of artifacts from antiquity.  What is the US trying to hide or destroy in the temples of Iraq?  Who would come up with the following unless they were into "Replacement Theology?"  Maybe some scriptures have just been mistranslated. 

  • "A servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren." So reads Noah's curse on his son Ham, and all his descendants, in Genesis 9:25. Over centuries of interpretation, Ham came to be identified as the ancestor of black Africans, and Noah's curse to be seen as biblical justification for American slavery and segregation. While Noah's curse was invoked in western Europe even prior to the modern period to explain the origins of slavery, only in the 15th century, when dark-skinned peoples were enslaved by the Spanish and Portuguese and the figure of the European slave trader became ironic, was the curse explicitly relied upon to justify the ownership of one human being by another.

  • The Torah says that Moses' wife was "Black" [using the word "Kushite"] but the King James Version of the Bible has translated it to read "from Ethiopia."

  • The Virgin Mary - Word actually used in Hebrew scriptures is "almah" ("young woman").  Hebrew word which could have been used, but wasn't, was "bethulah" ("virgin").

You must understand Abyssinia as a starting point.  Abyssinia was an extensive territory in East Africa that is known today as Ethiopia. In ancient times Ethiopia extended over vast domains in both Africa and Asia. Classical historians and geographers called the whole region from India to Egypt, both countries inclusive, by the name of Ethiopia. They regarded all the dark-skinned and Black peoples who inhabited it as Ethiopia.  (History of Ethiopia, Vol. I., Preface, by Sir E. A. Wallis Budge) "Homer and Herodotus call all the peoples of the Sudan, Egypt, Arabia, Palestine and Western Asia and India by the name of Ethiopians." (Ibid, p. 2) Herodotus wrote in his celebrated History that both the Western Ethiopians, who lived in Africa, and the Eastern Ethiopians who dwelled in India, were black in complexion, but that the Africans had curly hair, while the Indians were straight-haired. (The aboriginal Black inhabitants of India are generally referred to as the Dravidians.) "The Ethiopians were considered occupying all the south coasts of both Asia and Africa."


In ancient times the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea were called the Ethiopian Sea (Mare). Maps exist where the whole continent of Africa was labeled Libya. In ancient times Hispania is Europe today.

History of Ancient Civilization notes that the first civilized inhabitants of the Nile and Tigris-Euphrates valleys were a dark-skinned people with short hair and prominent lips. They are referred to by some scholars as Cushites (Ethiopians) and Hamites by others. The earliest cultures of Egypt and Mesopotamia grew from the Cushites and were not confined to the Near East. Traces of it have been found all over the world. Dr. W. J. Perry refers to it as the Archaic Civilization. Sir Grafton Elliot Smith terms it the Neolithic Heliolithic Culture of the Brunet-Browns. Mr. Wells alludes to this early civilization in his Outline of History, and dates its beginnings as far back as 15,000 years B.C. "This peculiar development of the Neolithic culture," "that Elliot Smith called the Heliolithic (sun-stone) culture, included many or all of the following odd practices: (1) Circumcision, (2) the queer custom of sending the father to bed when a child is born, known as Couvade, (3) the practice of Massage, (4) the making of Mummies, (5) Megalithic monuments (i.e. Stonehenge), (6) artificial deformation of the heads of the young by bandages, (7) Tattooing, (8) religious association of the Sun and the Serpent, and (9) the use of the symbol known as the Swastika for good luck. … Elliot Smith traces these associated practices in a sort of constellation all over this great Mediterranean / Indian Ocean-Pacific area. Where one occurs, most of the others occur. They link Brittany with Borneo and Peru. But this constellation of practices does not crop up in the primitive home of Nordic or Mongolian peoples, nor does it extend southward much beyond equatorial Africa. … The first civilizations in Egypt and the Euphrates-Tigris valley probably developed directly out of this widespread culture." (Outline of History, pp. 141–143).

CHRONOLOGY [100,000 BCE to 1 BCE] 


100,000 BCE Africans make artful incisions in ocher, making Africa home to the oldest images in the world.


50,000 BCE Africa suffers an extinction of 30% of its wildlife species.


28,000 BCE Climate deteriorated and the world entered the last major ice age. As a result of this, the Sahara reached up to the Ethiopian Highlands. Central Africa's mountain ranges were covered by ice flow. The River Nile, North of Khartoum, disappeared.

22,000-11,600 BCE Most of the Earth is covered in ice. In the last 4000 years of the ice age, the warming caused the sea level to rise 35 meters. A highly cultivated global Ice Age civilization is destroyed by water.


10,500-6000 BCE Ice Age Civilization in Africa survives intact and is centered in the Uplands of the Nile Valley (the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa). Diodorus claims that the Ethiopians (inclusive of all Africa, and not to be confused with modern Ethiopia) sent out, under one Osiris, a great army, "with the intention of visiting all the inhabited earth and teaching the race of men how to cultivate. Africans build the Great Sphinxes (supposedly originally two existed) and other astronomically-correct monuments and astro-geometrical structures all over the Earth.


8000 BCE Africans in the Congo basin practice brain surgery, and make complex mathematical notations. Lake Chad almost filled its present drainage basin [covering an area comparable in size to the state of Sudan], and spilled southwest out the Benue River to the Atlantic.


8000-2000 BCE People from central Africa occupy the plains of northwestern Africa.


6000 BCE Africans settle in the islands of the Mediterranean and in Europe.


5500 BC Tissili and Tibesti Massifs are major centres of African culture, to which communities across Africa trace origins. The harp is depicted in rock art of the Sahara dating back over 7,000 years ago.


5000 BCE Massive volcanic explosion on the floor of the Albertine Rift destroys life and earthquakes cause highly cultivated (Ice Age Osirian) African civilization centered in the Great Lakes Region of Africa to decentralize amid war and inundation. Center of political organization in Africa moves northward to what is now Central and Northern Sudan, and Egypt.

2050-1795 BCE Reunification of Egypt by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II; start of the Middle Kingdom (Dynasties XI-XII); major forts and temples in Kush at Faras, Aksha, Semna, and Buhen. Conflict between Egyptian and Kushite ruling houses.

1900 BCE A port is constructed. This port is named Rakouda and was located in the same place as the current Port Alexandria.

1887-1850 BCE Pharaoh Sesostris III (of royal Kushite descent) dominates Europe and Asia, and has extensive military, trading and fort network in Kush and Upper Egypt. Sesostris' African (Kushite) garrison stationed on the Black Sea coast at Colchis becomes the main center of trade and government in the Caucasus. The Garrison does not return home.

1874 BCE A canal connecting the Mediterranean to the Red Sea (original Suez Canal) is constructed by Sesostris III.

1786-1567 BCE Second Intermediate Period in Egypt (Dynasties XIII-XVII; Hyksos invade Egypt; horses and bronze swords introduced; Return of Kushite autonomy; Hyksos and Kushites ally against Egypto-Kushite Pharoah Kamose's effort to reunify the Nile Valley.

1595 BCE- Hittites fight with Egyptians over the control of Canaan (later known as Syria).

1570-1546 BCE Reign of Ahmose I in Egypt; Kushite campaigns and the appointment of an Egyptian as the "King’s Son of Kush".

1529 BCE Moses (of the Bible) is born at Memphis Egypt and is adopted by princess Neferubity Thermuthis (sister to Hatshepsut and Thutmosis II).


1509 BCE Kushite armies engage in battles with Egyptian army. Kushites defeat Egyptian forces and capture the whole of Egypt including the Mediterranean coast. The Egyptians unable to free themselves from the Kushite army ask for Moses' help. During the fighting at the fortifications around Saba, Kushite Princess Tharbis demands marriage to Moses as condition for truce, after which agreement the Kushite armies withdraw from Egypt. Moses returns to Egypt with Tharbis.


1489 BCE Moses flees from Egypt after killing an Egyptian.

1473-1458 BCE Reign of Queen Hatshepsut who builds temples in Upper Egypt and conducts trade with Punt in East Africa, and Ophir in Central and South Africa.


1450 BCE Moses returns from exile and confronts Pharaoh Thutmosis III over the enslavement of Hebrews. Thutmosis and a division of the Egyptian army are drowned by the Red Sea as a result of unusual hydrolic phenomenon. Thousands of Kushites join the exodus with the Hebrews as they leave Egypt. Danaan, Ogham and other leaders also leave Egypt with their followers and go to Greece and Ireland.

1409 BCE Moses dies and succeeded by Miriam, Aaron and Joshua. Greeks start to refer to Ta Waye as Egypt, a corruption of HeKaPtah (Spirit Temple of Ptah) the name of the Memphis temple of the god Ptah.

1410 BCE Joshua at the battle of Jericho

1403-1365 BCE Reign of Queen Tiy and Amenhotep III; builders of temple at Solb. Yuya the father of Queen Tiy is an official in the courts of both Tuthmosis IV and Amenhotep III. Yuya is also Master of Horse, a title that carried the name "Father of the God" (father to Pharaoh - Gen 45:8).

1352-1336 BCE Akhenaten Pharaoh in Egypt and co-ruler with Queen Nefertiti, maternal niece of Egypto-Kushite Matriarch Tiy. Like his father, Akhenaten derives his right to rule from his marriage to a member of the matriarchal lineage, usually bearing the title God's Wife of Amun, or High Priestess of Isis. Nefertiti's mother is not known; Nefertiti was brought up by another wife of Ay named Tey.


1336-1334 BCE Smenkhkare (brother of king Tut) pharaoh of Egypt.


1334-1325 BCE Tutankhamun rules Egypt together with Queen Ankhesenamun. King Tut dies in 1325.


1295-1298 BCE Ramesses I is Pharaoh in Egypt.


1279-1213 BCE Reign of Ramses II, son of Seti I and Queen Tuya; Temples at Abu Simbel, Amara West, and Aksha.


1212-1203 BCE Merenptah, son of Ramesses II is Pharaoh in Egypt.


The Sea People Appear


The Sea People were probably part of a great migration of displaced people.  The Great Harris Papyrus (now in the British Museum), are said to be a loose confederation of people originating in the eastern Mediterranean. Between 1200 and 1176 BC, the chaos that occurred in that region was probably a direct outcome of Sea People activity, and may be one reason why we find it difficult to find historical documentation beyond that date in Asia Minor.  This first attack of the Sea people occurred during the 5th regal year of Merenptah, the 19th Dynasty ruler and son of Ramesses II, and it seems that at first it took that king by surprise. Of course, Merenptah could not allow the Sea People to advance on Egypt's most sacred cities, and it seems that he put an end to this in a six hour battle by killing more than six thousand of them and routing the rest. Those Sea People who were captured appear to have been settled in military colonies located in the Delta, where their descendants would become an increasingly important political factor over time. Moshe Dothan's excavations at the Philistine city of Ashdod between 1962 and 1969, which uncovered a burnt layer dating to the 13th century BC, may correspond to this event, or to the arrival of the Peleset themselves in the area.  Merenptah's victory was recorded on the walls of the temple of Amun at Karnak and on the document we often refer to as the Israel Stele from his funerary temple.


The Sea People destroyed the Hittite Empire, ransacking the capital of Hattusas, and were probably responsible for the sacking of the client city of Ugarit on the Syrian coast, as well as cities such as Alalakh in northern Syria. Cyprus had also been overwhelmed and its capital Enkomi ransacked.  Their ultimate goal was Egypt. 


We also have "Sea People" in Oceania.  The Negritos are "Sea People."


 Sea People

Sea People


1210 BCE Egyptians and Pharaoh Merenptah record a major attack by Sea People.


1203-1197 Queen Tenosret and king Siptah are co-Pharaohs in Egypt.


1200 BCE Canaanite Phoenicians borrow the 27 (later 22) character alphabet from the Egyptians. New waves of invasions to the Middle East destroy the balance of order between Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. The Sea People destroy Ugarit an ancient Canaanite city hear the coast dating back to Third Millennium. The Phrygians, a tribe from Thrace or Macedonia, moves into Anatolia with the Sea People.


1197-1195 Queen Tenosret is Pharaoh in Egypt.

1198-1151 BCE Reign of Ramesses III in Egypt.

1193 Beginning in his 5th regnal year, Ramesses III son of Sethnakht defeats attact of the delta by massive confederation of Sea peoples, including the "chief of the Pelusti", Sherdens of the Sea, Pelusti, Mycenians, Greeks etc, who have overrun Libya. Invading Sea Peoples arrive with women and children numbering in the tens of thousands and overun Syrian coast. Ramesses kills thousands of Sea Peoples. The confederation of Sea Peoples advances by land and sea to Egypt, they overrun the Hittites and camp at Amor in Syria. Hittite empire is devastated by Sea People.

1184-1174 BCE Trojan War.  King Priam of Troy and many Trojans are under siege by "Sea Peoples" including Myceneans, Pelesgians, Acheaens, etc.  Africans fight on both sides. Amazons fight on Trojan side.  Memnon, the African King of Ethiopian Persia (and brother to Emathion, King of Ethiopia (Arabia) arrives from Susa with 200,000 African troops to defend Troy and is killed by Achilles.


1180 BCE Up to 12,000 Sea Peoples invade Libyan coast and about 20,000 attack Egypt.

1069-715 BC Third Intermediate Period in Egypt. (Dynasties XXI-XXIV) rival dynasties in Egypt Tanite (XXI dynasty, 1069-945 BC) established in Delta.

945-715 BCE Reign of Dynasty XXII; Kushites and Canaanites (Hittites & Phoenicians) establish a large number of ports on the North African shore, and on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and western Sicily and on the shore of Spain.


961+ BCE Solomon begins his reign and marries the daughter of Pharaoh Pasebkhanu II. Pasebkhanu sends his daughter off with 80,000 builders and 1000 musical instruments.


945 - 924 BCE Shishak (Sheshonq) married to sister of the wife of King Solomon. Hadad the Edomite prince escapes to Egypt and finds refuge in Shishak’s palace. Lady Talipenes, Pharaoh’s sister-in-law, marries Hadad and gives birth to their child Genubath.


936 BCE Pharaoh Shishak invades Israel and attacks Jerusalem.


931 BCE King Solomon dies and is succeeded by his son Rehoboam amid political instability.

818-715 BCE Reign of Egyptian Dynasty XXIII.


750-700 BCE Phoenician alphabet arrives in Greece. Oldest Greek text titled "the Ethiopians" is written. Homer (or other writers whose works are attributed to Homer), quoting "The Ethiopians" writes Odyssey and Hesiod, describing the Trojan War. Assyrian attacks destabilize Israel, Judah, and Phoenicia despite Kushite protection

725 BCE Assyrians capture and obliterate Hittite, Phoenician and other Canaanite city states including Sidon, Tyre (Phoenician) and Israel.


716 BCE Death of Piankhy; he is buried at Kurru.

701-690 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Shabataka (Shebitqu). Both Shabaka and Shabataka are mentioned in the Torah/Bible (Genesis 10). He is buried at Kurru.


701 BCEShabataka deploys Kushite army under command of Prince Taharka to save Jerusalem under the Judean king Hezekiah.


700-500 Heavy Greek colonization of Sicily, Southern Italy, Southern Provence, Andalusia and Cyrenaica, encircling Carthaginian territory.


690-664 BCE Taharka leads expedition to Spain. Coronation of Taharka at Memphis (meets his mother at coronation after 18 years away from home). Taharka adds to the temple at Jebel Barkal (690 BCE). Pharaoh Taharka is ruler of Libya as well as Kush.


680-669 BCE Camels introduced to Egypt by Assyrian King Esarhaddon. Later camels became critical in trans-Saharan trade.

669 BCE Assyrians under Esarhaddon siege and sack Memphis; son and wife of Taharka are taken captive by Esarhaddon to Assyria; Taharka resumes sends troops to support Phoenicians against Assyrian attacks.

664 BCE Taharka dies and is buried at Kurru pyramid field. Rise of Dyn XXVI in Egypt (664-525 BCE).

654 BCE Carthage founds colony in the Balearic Islands at Ibiza.


600 BCE Pharaoh Necho commissions Phoenician sailors to circumnavigate Africa. The voyage takes 3 years but is successful. Phoenicians spend part of the time in Southern Africa, long enough to grow and harvest food to complete their journey.


590 BCE Psammetichos II (595-589, Dyn XXVI) invades Kush to 3rd cataract, and fights at the northern plain of Dongola seizing 4,200 African captives. Pharoah Necho II escapes from Egypt and spends the rest of his life as a refugee in Kush.


574 BCE Tyre falls to Nebchadnezzar, making Carthage the leading Phoenician center.

570-526 BCE Amasis rules Egypt.

538 Death of Cyrus, succeeded by his son Cambyses. Cambyses mother is an Egyptian princess.

529-521 BC Reign of Persian King Cambyses in Egypt, after his defeat of Psamtik III in 525 at Pelusium. He captures Thebes but is repulsed by the Kushites.


507 BCE First Carthagean treaty with Rome


498 BCE Hippocrates and Theron seize control in Syracuse and attempt to throw Phoenicians off western part of the island.


487-485 BC Revolt in Upper Egypt.


480 BCE Carthagean Alliance with Persia fails to destroy Greeks, military defeat in Sicily as fleet is cut off by superior Athenian forces (Himera).

479-450 BCE Carthage conquers most of Tunisia. Colonies in North Africa founded or strengthened. Mago's expedition across the Sahara.

450-410 BC Jewish Military colony in Egypt on Nile island of Yeb; according to later excavation and discovery, the colony appears to worship several gods includes Yahu (YHW), Eshem ('SM), goddess Anath ('NT), Bethel (BYT'L) & Herem.


430 BCE Herodotus reaches Aswan. He writes The Histories describing Meroe as Africa’s leading metropolis and industrial center.


410 BC Temple of Yahu (YHW) on Nile island of Yeb is destroyed. Phoenicians in Spain join with Celtiberians to secede from Carthage, denying the state important silver and copper revenues. Overland tin trade cut off. Himilco's expeditions in the Atlantic. Hanno's expeditions to Morocco and Senegal.


409 BCE Carthage initiates attempts to conquer Sicily. Hannibal, grandson of Hamilcar, takes the fortified towns of Selinus and Himera by use of siege towers.


405 BCE Hannibal Mago and hundreds of troops die in epidemic outside fortified town of Acragas. Himilco, his relative, takes over command, is defeated by force out of Syracuse, and has supply disrupted in naval action.


380 BC 30th Dynasty founded by Nekhtnebf I, last African dynasty of Egypt


367 BCE Dionysius attacks Carthaginian base at Lilybaeum -- stopped when fleet defeated by warships under Hanno the Great.


360 BCE Hanno the Great crucified following unsuccessful attempt to usurp power.


360-342 BC Reign of last Egyptian Pharaoh Nectanebo II of the XXX Dynasty (380-343 BC)


350 BCE Carthage now leading Western power, is allied with Egypt and Kush.


342-333 BC Second Persian conquest of Egypt; The last Pharaoh of Egypt Nectanebo II (Dynasty XXXI) flees to Kush.


334 BCE Carthage makes peace with the Greek empire and with the Lagos monarchy in Egypt.


332 BCE Siege and Defeat of Tyre and Gaza by Alexander the Great of Macedonia; rout of Persians; Conquest of Egypt and end of Persian domination welcomed by Africans (Egyptians, Kushites and Carthageans). Greek expeditions in many parts of Africa; Greek language and culture introduced.


331 BCE Foundation of Alexandria


327 BCE At Makaranda in Samarkand, Persia, during a drunken rage Alexander murders Cleitus Niger, the African King of Bactria, foster brother of Alexander and commander of the "royal squadron" of the Greek/Macedonian armies under Phillip and Alexander.


323 BCE Alexander dies


323-282 BCE Ptolemy I: satrap of Egypt, disciple of Aristotle, moved remaining Jews of Judea to Alexandria & founded Museum in 323, Library in 307, ruled Syria 319-314, in 305 named Soter (Savior), founds Ptolemaic Empire of Egypt


309 BCE Agathocles sails force of 14,000 to Africa. Carthage meets with 40,000 foot, 1000 cavalry and 2000 chariots under Bomilcar and Hanno. Greeks are victorious, Carthage losing 3000 on the battlefield, but city is impregnable. Siege of Syracuse continues.


300 BCE Massive African migration southward ahead of the expanding Sahara. Pytheas explores the Atlantic, Euthymenes the coasts of Africa.

285 BCE 300-foot-tall light house on the island of Pharos in Alexandria's harbor serves as a landmark for ships in the eastern Mediterranean. Light from its wood fire, reflected by convex mirrors at its top, can be seen for miles. Built by Sostratus of Cnidus, it is one of the seven wonders of the ancient world and will remain an important navigational aid for 1600 years.


275 BCE Manetho: Egyptian High Priest wrote "History of Egypt" in Greek.

264-241 BCE First Punic War between Rome and Carthage.


263 BCE First War between Carthage and Rome begins over Sicily.


250 BCE Synagogues: places to study Torah (Mosaic Law) appear

250 BC Translation of Jewish Bible into Greek.


247 BCE Hannibal born in Carthage, later to become general of Carthaginian Army


245 BC Babylon and Susa fall to the Egyptian armies of Ptolemy III.


243 BC Ptolemy III is recalled from Syria by a revolt in Egypt; he ceases his martial interests and his support of the Egyptian army.


237 BC Carthagean army under Hamilcar Barca, 33, invades the Iberian Peninsula. Hamilcar Barca re-conquers Spain.


228 BC Carthaginian General Hamilcar Barca falls in battle. Command of his army in the Iberian Peninsula passes to his son-in-law Hasdrubal.


238 BC Rome captures Sardinia then Corsica from Carthage

216 BCE The Battle of Cannae August 2 ends in victory for Hannibal, whose 40,000-man army defeats a heavily armored Roman force of 70,000. Some 50,000 Roman and allied troops are killed, 10,000 are taken prisoner, but Hannibal lacks the catapults and battering rams needed to besiege Rome and contents himself with laying waste the fields of Italy, forcing Rome to import grain at war-inflated prices. Greek sovereigns Philip V of Macedonia and Hiero of Syracuse join Carthage's cause.

214-205 Antigonid Kings of Macedon, attacked by Rome for siding with Carthage in 1st Macedonian War

207 BCE The Battle of Metaurus in Umbria ends Hannibal's hopes of success in Italy. A Carthaginian army under Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal is defeated by the Romans under the consuls Claudius Nero and Livius Salinator. Hasdrubal is killed in the battle.

204 BC Roman forces under P. Cornelius Scipio (Scipio Africanus) besiege Carthage. Mago is defeated in northern Italy attempting to reinforce Hannibal. A peace treaty is declared and Hannibal returns to Africa.


204-180 BC Reign of Ptolemy V Philometor. Inscription of Rosetta Stone.


202 BCE Carthaginan attack on Roman convoy which has run aground re-opens the war. Hannibal defeated at Zama to end Second War with Rome.

183 Hannibal dies by his own hand to escape Romans in Bithynia.

164-163 BC Flight of Ptolemy VI from Egypt.


80-51 BC Reign of Ptolemy XII, `the Piper'


73-71 BC Romans finally crush the slave revolt of Spartacus in Southern Italy.


56-34 BCE Artavazd II, Armenian King, playwright, murdered by Antony & Cleopatra


50 BCE Diodorus terms Kush as the home of Egyptians, and of civilization itself. Reigns of Kandakes Amanirenas and Amanishakheto.


49 BCE Queen Cleopatra VII is deposed by her brother Ptolemy XIII


48 BC Pompey flees to Egypt where he is assassinated. Alexandrian War and Julius Caesar seeks rule of Egypt. Cleopatra reinstated as Queen of Egypt.


51-30 BC Reign of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV, initially as co-regents. Then she rules alone.


31 BC Octavian is victorious at the battle of Actium. Cleopatra and Antony are defeated.


30-28 BC Roman conquest of Egypt under Octavian; suicides of Cleopatra and Antony.


29 BC     Romans invade Kush and ambush the Kandake (Candace) Amanirena. Her body guard defeats the Roman legions and Kushites sack southern Egypt and set fire to Thebes.


27 BC-14 AD Reign of Roman Caesar Augustus.


25 BCE Octavian Augustus gives Mauretania (in addition to Numidia to which he had been restored in 31BC) to Juba II as a client kingdom. Juba's kingdom includes modern Morocco and Mauretania. [Juba II married Cleopatra-Selene, daughter of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony. Juba and Cleopatra-Selene's son Ptolemy was murdered by his cousin Caligula emperor of Rome. Their grand son Drusilla II married Agrippa I of Judah].


22-19 BCE Augustus has temple built at Dendera on the Nile.

21-20 BCE Kushites obtain reinforcements from central Africa and to avoid defeat Roman Legions at Premnis sue for peace. Augustus Caesar establishes standing army as result of strain of war with Cush.


4-0 BCE The Garamantes to the west of the Nile, and the Beja (Blemmys) troops in Kush, as well as several other communities revolt (prompted by Rome) against ruling Kushite Dynasty. Jesus Christ and his family live in Egypt.


NOTE:  The Original Eve was reconstructed by Richard Neave of Manchester, England, from the cast of the skull uncovered in the Qafzeh cave in Israel in 1969.  The cast was provided by the Natural History Museum of London.