European Skin Turned Pale Only Recently, Gene Suggests
(Europeans were Brown-Skinned 5000 - 6000 Years Ago)
a change in the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism or virus, sometimes resulting in the appearance of a new character or trait not found in the parental type. The process by which such a change occurs, either through an alteration in the nucleotide sequence coding for a gene or through a change in the physical arrangement of the genetic material. Does this suggest the parent was brown and white is a mutation? Does this go along with the research that we know mankind started in Africa and migrated to other parts of the world?
Negroid Twa (Pygmies - Derogatory definition, tending to lessen the merit or reputation of a person or thing; disparaging; depreciatory) migrated into Southeast Asia from Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma and Thailand, Java, Sumatra, Malaya, Korea, Japan) followed by Australoid and Melanesian Negritos and Papuans between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago. Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and most of the islands of the Pacific developed their own isolated cultures and native beliefs but were not affected by literate civilization until the arrival of sailing vessels in the 16th Century. Pygmies from Africa are referred to as “Negrillos.” TWA (Pygmies) who live in South East Asia, New Guinea and The Philippines are referred to as “Negritos."
The progression of losing skin color in humans is called “differentiation” and came about because of a sudden onslaught of the returning Ice Age in Europe lasting 8,000 – 12,000 years. The Ice Age caused the loss of sunlight and lack of Vitamin-D to inland people trapped. In The History and Geography of Human Genes, Cavalli-Sforza explains the connection between climate and physiological traits: the classical trait is skin color on which climate acts in many ways.
By absorbing ultraviolet rays, dark skin is advantageous in protecting against solar erythema and skin carcinomas (cancer), but it is a bar against the production of vitamin D in the lower skin layers. Especially when the diet produces little or no vitamin D, having white skin is a necessity in high latitude. Using this theory, the white skin color of northern Europeans evolved (and inversely changed during) the last 5,000 years from a brown color characteristic of Caucasoid (Caucasus Mountains) commencing from West Asia and North Africa to a white skin color exhibited currently.
The individuals whose skin was unable to adapt survived, but those who were not able to adapt eventually died out until there were no more dark-skinned people left in that region. Cut off from the rest of the human family, and land-locked, it was in this relative isolation (dark-skinned people) underwent adaptations in a frigid, relatively sunless environment. This resulted in the creation of a new human race characterized by pale skin, lightened straight hair, varying shades of eye color, and narrow angular facial features.
The Aurignacian Africans were the first Homo sapiens to enter Europe in approximately 40,000 B.C. Before the Ice Age event that followed, there were only Negritic (Black) people on this planet. This migration to Europe occurred during a brief warming event during the Ice Age beginning 115,000 years ago. After a few years the warming period came to a close and the full force of the Ice Age returned. During that colder period the color of the Aurignacians’ skin began to lighten. It was not until thousands of years later that “the mesocephalic trait appeared during the Mesolithic Age (around 10,000 years ago) and the brachycephalic so-called Yellow race first appeared much later.”
Using variations in the gene that did not cause paling, the background mutation was calculated at a rate of SLC24A5 and thereby determined that 18,000 years had passed since the light-skin allele was fixed in Europeans. But the error margins were large that analyzed a variation in the DNA flanking the gene. Europeans with the allele had a “striking lack of diversity” in this flanking DNA—a sign of very recent genetic change, because not enough time has passed for new mutations to arise. The data suggest the selective sweep occurred 5300 to 6000 years ago, but given the imprecision of method, the real date could be as far back as 12,000 years ago. Other unknown, genes probably cause paling in Europeans. The early immigrants to Europe, who were hunter-gatherers, herders, and fishers, survived on ready-made sources of vitamin D in their diet.
The story of ‘Snowflake’ dramatically illustrates how it is possible for whites to come into being from blacks: Born of coal black parents, this albino gorilla named “Snowflake” has platinum blond hair, white (pink) skin, and blue eyes! (National Geographic: Mar. 67, Oct. 70). Similarly in Panama, particularly among the San Blas Indians are albino natives that also have blond hair and blue eyes! They are often indistinguishable from blond Northern Europeans! In the Bible, Edomites are whites who descended from an albino named Esau who was born ruddy (red) & hairy. (Gen. 25:25) The Bible refers to white skin as leprosy (Num. 12:10-12, Lev. 13) and reports that a race of people (Gahazites) was born white due to being cursed! (II Kings 5:27) Bible scholars credit Japheth (a son of Noah) as fathering a (Black) people who settled in the north, ultimately becoming the Caucasian Race.
Similarly, other scholars theorize that Africans who migrated to Europe and were caught in the Ice Age, gradually lightened until their genes mutated to adapt to the scant sunlight, thus producing a race of whites. Interestingly, the ancient Egyptians recorded the Tamahu, which means created white people. Egyptian writings also refer to whites as Typhonians or People of Seth. After these whites were first released into the Black community of the Near East 6,000 years ago, they caused sever strife; thus, the Africans rounded them up, stripped them of everything and exiled them to the caves and hills of the Caucasus Mountains.
Researchers have disagreed for decades about an issue that is only skin-deep: How quickly did the first modern humans who swept into Europe acquire pale skin? Now a new report on the evolution of a gene for skin color suggests that Europeans lightened up quite recently, perhaps only 6,000 to 12,000 years ago. This contradicts a long-standing hypothesis that modern humans in Europe grew paler about 40,000 years ago, as soon as they migrated into northern latitudes. Under darker skies, pale skin absorbs more sunlight than dark skin, allowing ultraviolet rays to produce more vitamin D for bone growth and calcium absorption. “The [evolution of] light skin occurred long after the arrival of modern humans in Europe,” molecular anthropologist Heather Norton of the University of Arizona, Tucson, said in her talk.
Researchers made a major breakthrough in 2005 by discovering a gene, SLC24A5, that apparently causes pale skin in many Europeans but not in Asians. A team led by geneticist Keith Cheng of Pennsylvania State University (PSU) College of Medicine in Hershey found two variants of the gene that differed by just one amino acid. Nearly all Africans and East Asians had one allele, whereas 98% of the 120 Europeans they studied had the other (Science, 28 October 2005, p. 601).
Norton, who worked on the Cheng study as a graduate student, decided to find out when that mutation swept through Europeans. Working as a postdoc with geneticist Michael at the University of Arizona, she sequenced 9,300 base pairs of DNA in theSLC24A5 gene in 41 Europeans, Africans, and American Indians. Using variations in the gene that did not cause paling, she calculated the background mutation rate of SLC24A5 and thereby determined that 18,000 years had passed since the light-skin allele was fixed in Europeans. But the error margins were large, so she also analyzed variation in the DNA flanking the gene. She found that Europeans with the allele had a “striking lack of diversity” in this flanking DNA—a sign of very recent genetic change, because not enough time has passed for new mutations to arise. The data suggest that the selective sweep occurred 5,300 to 6,000 years ago, but given the imprecision of method, the real date could be as far back as 12,000 years ago, Norton said. She added that other, unknown, genes probably also cause paling in Europeans.
Either way, the implication is that Europeans were brown-skinned for tens of thousands of years—a suggestion made 30 years ago by Stanford University geneticist L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza. He argued that the early immigrants to Europe, who were hunter-gatherers, herders, and fishers, survived on ready-made sources of vitamin D in their diet. But when farming spread in the past 6,000 years.
20 APRIL 2007 VOL 316 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org
Published by AAAS