Skin Turned Pale Only Recently, Gene Suggests
were Brown-Skinned 5000 - 6000 Years Ago)
Europeans were Brown-Skinned 5000 - 6000 Years Ago.
Negroid Pygmies migrated into Southeast Asia (Vietnam,
Cambodia, Burma and Thailand, Java, Sumatra, Malaya, Korea,
Japan) followed by Australoid and Melanesian Negritos and
Papuans between 30,000 and 40,000 years ago.
Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and most of the
islands of the Pacific developed their own isolated cultures
and native beliefs but were not affected by literate
civilization until the arrival of sailing vessels in the 16th
Century. Pygmies from Africa are referred to as “Negrillos.”
Pygmies who live in South East Asia, New Guinea and The
Philippines are referred to as “Negritos."
the albino offspring of Black Africans? White skin is a form
of albinism. It appears that whites have “come into being”
through a number of ways: In The Isis Papers p123, Dr.
Frances Cress Welsing states “whites are undoubtedly a
genetic mutant albino population... from the original Black
(hue-man) beings.” The story of ‘Snowflake’ dramatically
illustrates how it is possible for whites to come into being
from blacks: Born of coal black parents, this albino gorilla
named “Snowflake” has platinum blond hair, white (pink)
skin, and blue eyes! (National Geographic: Mar. 67, Oct.
70). Similarly in Panama, particularly among the San Blas
Indians are albino natives that also have blond hair and
blue eyes! They are often indistinguishable from blond
Northern Europeans! In the Bible, Edomites are whites that
descended from an albino named Esau who was born ruddy (red)
& hairy. (Gen. 25:25) The Bible refers to white skin as
leprosy (Num. 12:10-12, Lev. 13) and reports that a race of
people (Gahazites) was born white due to being cursed! (II
Kings 5:27) Bible scholars credit Japheth (a son of Noah) as
fathering a (Black) people who settled in the north,
ultimately becoming the Caucasian Race.
other scholars theorize that Africans who migrated to Europe
and were caught in the Ice Age, gradually lightened until
their genes mutated to adapt to the scant sunlight, thus
producing a race of whites. Interestingly, the ancient
Egyptians recorded the Tamahu, which means created white
people. Egyptian writings also refer to whites as Typhonians
or People of Seth, both meaning “the devils.” After these
“white devils” were first released into the Black community
of the Near East 6000 years ago, they caused sever strife,
thus the Africans rounded them up, stripped them of
everything and exiled them to the caves and hills of the
Caucasus Mountains. This explains the sudden appearance of
white people in this region. To prevent their escaping
Africans installed a series of guarded walls blocking all
exits along that area from one sea to the other!
have disagreed for decades about an issue that is only skin-deep:
How quickly did the first modern humans who swept into Europe
acquire pale skin? Now a new report on the evolution of a gene for
skin color suggests that Europeans lightened up quite recently,
perhaps only 6000 to 12,000 years ago. This contradicts a
long-standing hypothesis that modern humans in Europe grew paler
about 40,000 years ago, as soon as they migrated into northern
latitudes. Under darker skies, pale skin absorbs more sunlight than
dark skin, allowing ultraviolet rays to produce more vitamin D for
bone growth and calcium absorption. “The [evolution of] light skin
occurred long after the arrival of modern humans in Europe,”
molecular anthropologist Heather
Norton of the University of Arizona, Tucson, said in her talk.
Researchers made a major breakthrough in 2005 by discovering a gene,
SLC24A5, that apparently causes pale skin in many Europeans,
but not in Asians. A team led by geneticist Keith Cheng of
Pennsylvania State University (PSU) College of Medicine in Hershey
found two variants of the gene that differed by just one amino acid.
Nearly all Africans and East Asians had one allele, whereas 98% of
the 120 Europeans they studied had the other (Science, 28
October 2005, p. 601).
worked on the Cheng study as a graduate student, decided to find out
when that mutation swept through Europeans. Working as a
postdoc with geneticist Michael at the University of Arizona, she
sequenced 9300 base pairs of DNA in theSLC24A5
gene in 41 Europeans, Africans, and American Indians. Using
variations in the gene that did not cause paling, she calculated the
background mutation rate of SLC24A5 and thereby determined
that 18,000 years had passed since the light-skin allele was fixed
in Europeans. But the error margins were large, so she also analyzed
variation in the DNA flanking the gene. She found that Europeans
with the allele had a “striking lack of diversity” in this flanking
DNA—a sign of very recent genetic change, because not enough time
has passed for new mutations to arise. The data suggest that the
selective sweep occurred 5300 to 6000 years ago, but given the
imprecision of method, the real date could be as far back as 12,000
years ago, Norton said. She added that other, unknown, genes
probably also cause paling in Europeans.
Either way, the implication is that Europeans were brown-skinned for tens of thousands of years—a
suggestion made 30 years ago by Stanford University geneticist L.
Luca Cavalli-Sforza. He argued that the early immigrants to Europe,
who were hunter-gatherers, herders, and fishers, survived on
ready-made sources of vitamin D in their diet. But when farming
spread in the past 6000 years.
20 APRIL 2007 VOL 316 SCIENCE www.sciencemag.org
Published by AAAS